(Gilbert Nin Ling)
Создатель современной фазовой теории клетки

Gilbert Ling in 1962

Гильберт Линг (Gilbert Nin Ling),
создатель количественных теорий клеточной проницаемости, биоэлектрических потенциалов, окислительного фосфорилирования.
Выдвинул оригинальную теорию мышечного сокращения.
Домашняя страница (home page):
gilbertling @ dobar.org

Гильберт Нин Линг по происхождению - китаец, родился в 1919 г. В 40-х годах получил высшее образование в США по правительственной программе помощи США Китаю. Является автором революционного для своего времени метода - микроэлектродной техники отведения клеточных потенциалов. Большую часть своей научной карьеры возглавлял лабораторию в Пеннсильванском госпитале.

Является автором около 200 научных работ (из них 3 - монографии), опубликованных в авторитетных научных журналах. Основатель научного журнала Physiological Chemistry and Physics and Medical NMR. Усредненный индекс цитирования работ Линга (без учета самоцитирования) в период с 1980 по 1991 г. - 6 цитирований в год. При этом в 1990 году работы Линга цитировали в 14 публикациях; в 1991 году - в 11. Необходимо отметить, что работ с критикой взглядов Линга крайне мало и указанные индексы цитирования -показатель именно одобрительного внимания.


1. Ling, G.N. A Physical Theory of the Living State: The Association-Induction Hypothesis, Waltham, Massachusetts: Blaisdell, 1962. 680 p.

2. Ling, G.N. In Search of the Physical Basis of Life, New York and London: Plenum Press, 1984. 791 p.

3. Ling, G.N.
A Revolution in the Physiology of the Living Cell, Malabar, Florida: Krieger Publishing Company, 1992. 404 p.

4. Ling G.N. "Life at the Cell and Below-Cell Level: the Hidden History of a Fundamental Revolution in Biology". Книга переведена на русский язык.

Main principles of Ling’s physical theory of the living cell

the Association-Induction Hypothesis with Considerations of the Mechanisms Involved in Ionic Specificity, Behavior of Proteins, Selective Accumulation of Ions and Nonelectrolytes, Cellular Electrical Potentials, Ionic Permeability and Diffusion, Excitation and Inhibition, Contractile Mechanism, Enzyme Action, Drug and Hormone Action, Antibody-Antigen Reaction, Fertilization, Chemical Embryology, Growth, Differentiation, and Cancer."

"Ling offers no less than... a general molecular theory of life phenomena... a major synthesis, moving from the minor variables at the molecular level to the major properties of the cellular level... Such an integrative and synthetic treatment cannot fail to give the whole field of biology a great forward impetus."
RALPH W. GERARD, University of Michigan

"At a time when we look forward to the merging of the physical and biological sciences, this is a most stimulating book, distinguished by a bold and inquisitive attitude on the one hand, and careful experimental methods on the other."
C.N. YANG, Nobel Laureate in Physics, 1957

GILBERT N. LING, born in 1919, a native of China, entered the National Central University in Chungking as a student of animal husbandry. After two years, he transferred to the biology department and received a B.Sc. degree in 1943. Having done graduate work in zoology at the Tsing Hua University in Kunming, he won the Boxer Indemnity Fellowship, in 1945, to study physiology in the United States. In 1948, he received his Ph.D. degree in physiology from the University of Chicago, where he had studied under Dr. Ralph W. Gerard.

Since that time, Dr. Ling has been engaged, without interruption, in research while successively holding the positions of Seymour Coman Post-Doctoral Fellow at the University of Chicago, Instructor at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Assistant and Associate Professor at the University of Illinois School of Medicine, and Senior Research Scientist at the Eastern Pennsylvania Psychiatric Institute. Dr. Ling is presently Director of the Department of Molecular Biology at Pennsylvania Hospital.



Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

"The image [of science] has been previously drawn... from the study of finished scientific achievements as these are recorded in the classes and more recently in the textbooks... Inevitably... a concept of science drawn from them is no more likely to fit the enterprise that produced them than an image of national culture drawn from a tourist brochure or language text."
Thomas Kuhn, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

Any scientific investigation is an open-ended, ongoing process that must continually reevaluate past decisions and build and expand upon new theories and research findings. In Search of the Physical Basis of Life chronicles the history of scientific efforts to understand the living cell - the basic unit of all life - and presents the foundation of a new paradigm in cell physiology, the association-induction (A-I) hypothesis.

Dr. Ling's monumental treatise considers the rise to dominance of the membrane pump theory and then builds a solid framework for the A-I hypothesis, citing the reasons that led to its brief introduction in 1952 and a detailed version ten years later. The A-I hypothesis suggests that cellular ions are adsorbed on anionic protein side chains and that intracellular water is adsorbed in multilayers on polypeptide chains in the cell, so that the components of a cell exist in a dynamically ordered and functionally coherent array. In addition to the historical and theoretical development of the A-I hypothesis, Dr. Ling presents results of the extensive worldwide testing of alternate theories that has been carried out over the past thirty years. Distinguished by its all-inclusive approach to a science that reaches across the natural boundaries of time and the man-made boundaries of specialized fields, this unique volume synthesizes old and new information of great overall significance.

For those who anticipate that progress in cell physiology may soon match that in genetics and for those who simply need a more useful set of basic concepts in bio-logical and medical research, this book is a must.



Full text [DjVu]

"Dr. Ling's work is sophisticated and essential. This book will guide its readers to the new era of genuine biology."
Dr. Hiroshia Tamagawa, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan





"Life on earth is in increasing danger. In my view, if Gilbert N. Ling's association-induction hypothesis is widely taught to the younger generation, we could have a much better chance
to save life on earth".
Prof. Miklós Kellermayer, University of Péch, Péch, Hungary

Ling’s Ideas and Their Importance for Biology and Medicine
(Russian scientists about Ling's book)

Some important Gilbert Ling's articles in PDF format are available here:
Physiological Chemistry and Physics and Medical NMR

Last publication:
Ling G.N. A Convergence of Experimental and Theoretical Breakthroughs Affirms the PM theory of Dynamically Structures Cell Water on the Theory's 40th Birthday. In: Water and the Cell. (Pollack G.H., Cameron I.L. and Wheatley D.N., eds.). Springer, 2006, p. 1-52.

Список трудов Гильберта Линга

Авторы, придерживавшиеся тех или иных аспектов фазово-сорбционного подхода

Список публикаций с критикой взглядов Линга

Новая книга Гильберта Линга 
"Life at the Cell and Below-Cell level. The Hidden History of a Fundamental Revolution in Biology"

Shirley Ling

                                На главную страницу


Hosted by uCoz